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The novel HydroFlame direct-contact combustion process has been adapted for use in a Downhole Steam Generator (DHSG), which enables the…

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In this process, a high intensity flame is surrounded by two films of rotating water. The flame is in direct…

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According to the United States Geological Survey, more than 95% of the world's Heavy Oil is located in reservoirs deeper…

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HydroFlame offers a technology solution to benefit businesses involved in Heavy Oil and Bitumen production. This solution offers environmental, technical.....

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HydroFlame Technologies, LLC was established in August 2008 with the sole purpose of commercializing the HydroFlame novel direct contact...

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On April 15, 2011, Senator Mary Landrieu visited the HydroFlame facility as part of her tour of the Louisiana Business…


How does GAGD work?

CO2 EOR is the fastest growing EOR process in the United States. The target for CO2 EOR is over 407 billion barrels of oil in the mature oil fields in the US alone. Water Alternating Gas (WAG) process has remained the default industry standard for CO2 injection with almost 80% of commercial projects employing WAG. WAG attempts to overcome natural gravity segregation in Continuous Gas Injection (CGI) process by alternating gas injection with water and that has yielded better EOR performance in WAG floods than continuous gas injection (CGI) field projects. However, WAG is still a method to ‘combat’ the natural phenomenon of gravity segregation. In attempting to resolve one problem of adverse mobility, the WAG process gives rise to other problems associated with increased water saturation in the reservoir including diminished gas injectivity and increased competition to the flow of oil. The disappointing field performance of WAG floods with oil recoveries in the range of 10-15% is a clear indication of these limitations.


conceptual view of wag process

Conceptual view of a Water Alternating Gas (WAG) Process
as depicted in Department of Energy (DOE) Website

alternative view of wag process

Alternative and more realistic view of WAG process based on
reported field recovery efficiency of just 5-10% of the remaining oil

In order to find an effective alternative to WAG, Gas- Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) process was developed in EOR labs at LSU. Unlike WAG, the GAGD process takes advantage of the natural segregation of injected gas from crude oil in the reservoir. Although gravity-stable gas floods have long been practiced in selected dipping reservoirs and pinnacle reefs, this project was aimed at a systematic development of a recovery process that would be widely applicable to different reservoir types in both secondary and tertiary modes. The GAGD process consists of placing a horizontal producer near the bottom of the payzone and injecting gas through new/existing vertical wells used in prior waterfloods. As the injected gas rises to the top to form a gas zone, oil and water drain down to the horizontal producer.


conceptual view of gagd process

Conceptual view of a GAGD Process